The Arctic Field Party

It seems ironic that in the early stages of the Cold War, the United States Government sent surveyors and hydrographic engineers to the coldest reaches of the North American continent. For these men, it was truly a Cold War. From 1945 through 1953, field parties of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey were sent to survey sea routes through the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas as well as to conduct geodetic surveys to help position Distant Early Warning system radars and help delineate the vast resources of the Alaskan Arctic. These men toiled in obscurity beneath the midnight sun... (read more)
2017-07-04 11:00:42

Deep-water Black-box Retrieval

A Game of Hunt-the-pinger Against the Clock
Restricted operating life, limited range and bearing ambiguity in deep water are the known limitations of current locator beacons mounted on aircraft. These problems raise important questions: what is the best method of locating existing pingers and what can replace them? In deep water, pinger detection equipment could be installed on a submarine. Alternatively, a transponder beacon can provide both range and bearing information, as well as demonstrate a significantly longer listening life. Although heavier and therefore not suitable for light aircraft, commercial aircraft could easily accommodate such beacons allowing easier retrieval of the aircraft black boxes. In the July/August... (read more)
2009-12-04 03:49:14

Increased-resolution Bathymetry in the Southeast Indian Ocean

MH370 Search Data
The disappearance of Malaysian Airlines flight MH370 on 8 March 2014 led to a deep ocean search effort of unprecedented scale and detail in the remote southeastern Indian Ocean. Between June 2014 and January 2017, two mapping phases took place: (1) a shipborne bathymetric survey, and (2) a higher-resolution search in areas where accurate mapping of the seafloor was required to guide the detailed underwater search aimed at locating the aircraft wreckage. The latter phase used sidescan, multibeam and synthetic aperture sonar mounted on towed or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This article describes the mapping of the area where the... (read more)
2017-09-28 09:06:32

Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Infrastructure Status and Developments
The concept of GNSS was first introduced by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Commission (EC) and Eurocontrol in the early nineties. They defined requirements for a European GPS augmentation system, GNSS-1, and a full European satellite navigation system, GNSS-2, later together renamed EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System) and Galileo. Satellite navigation infrastructure status and developments are described here. Nowadays the term GNSS is used for the system of systems comprising GPS and GLONASS, with the later addition of Galileo. Satellite-based and ground-based augmentation systems (SBAS and GBAS) were introduced to augment GPS and GLONASS. Hydrographers were early... (read more)
2008-01-01 01:00:00

Surface Imaging Capabilities on Marine Hydrographic Vessels

In a combined effort of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and private industry (Applanix and Riegl), two different but complimentary technologies were tested in the marine survey field to find a more efficient, higher-accuracy and safer alternative for traditional shoreline verification methods. This article describes the tests and the encouraging good results with this videogrammetry and laser scanning technology.<P> Vessel-based shoreline verification is a laborious, exacting and often dangerous element of nautical charting. During this process, a boat is deployed into the near-shore region to verify shoreline information extracted from aerial photogrammetry. Near-shore features such as piers, rocks, islets... (read more)
2008-01-19 12:00:00

Businesswoman in the Middle East

Interview with Susan Murray, General Manager of the Seatronics’ Middle East office
Ms Murray joined Oceonics (the forerunner of Seatronics) in 1981. It was here that she got her first taste of business in the hydrographic Industry, specifically in the sales environment. After spending a couple of years gaining valuable experience with another equipment rental company in Aberdeen, she returned to Oceonics as Sales Manager. Between 1987 and 1996 she was the General Manager of her own equipment rental company in Aberdeen, selling this in 1996. In 2000 she decided it was time to move on and, believing herself too young to retire, agreed to take on the role of Middle East... (read more)
2008-01-01 01:00:00

Space-borne Technologies for the O&G Sector

From Operational Environmental Monitoring to Rapid Bathymetry Mapping
This article describes the methods, applications, services and validation of such projects, showcasing the possibilities of these technologies. Satellite-derived mapping and monitoring technologies can provide important support for a range of applications in the oil and gas industry. Satellite-derived mapping and monitoring technologies can provide important support for a range of applications in the oil and gas industry. Prior to tasks such as pipeline routing and other infrastructure engineering activities, these technologies can be efficiently deployed over large, remote and/or in-accessible areas for bathymetry charting, mapping seafloor habitats and monitoring the health of near coastal ecosystems. During dredging activities, satellite-derived... (read more)
2013-09-06 04:32:53

The European Seafloor Observatory Network (ESONET)

ESONET proposes a network of sea floor observatories around the European Ocean Margin, from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea, for strategic long-term monitoring as part of the European GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). The network will have capabilities in geophysics, geotechnics, chemistry, biochemistry, oceanography, biology and fisheries. Long-term data collection and alarm capability in the event of hazards (e.g. earthquakes) will be considered. Ten initial areas for ESONET development have already been identified, in addition to a mobile emergency response station. The submarine terrain around Europe, from the continental shelves to 4,000 m depth, is known... (read more)
2008-01-01 01:00:00

Approaches to Hydrographic Training and Capacity Building

Technology and Blended Learning for Flexible, Modular Training
The Challenge: To provide a stimulating educational framework that blends relevant theory with practical exercises without removing individuals from their work environment for too long a period and optimising investment in complex and expensive equipment that may only be used a few weeks per year. The IHO FIG/IHO/ICA International Board for Standards of Competence (IBSC) has recognised the need for the competency standards to continue to evolve to meet these contemporary and future requirements. This paper presents an approach taken to modernise the training and capacity building aspects of these challenges. The demands made upon the world’s charting authorities continue... (read more)
2013-07-12 02:15:09

Marine SDI

Introducing Spatial Data Infrastructures
Global warming, climate change, rising sea levels and increased commercial exploitation of the seabed and sea space are important global indicators of a changing world environment. A crucial role is played by hydrographic and oceanographic spatial data in supporting response. Accurate and timely base reference information minimally comprises seabed topography and characterisation to which temporal information such as wave, tide and current can be referenced. In order to provide a complete picture, information held by HOs, National Mapping Agencies (NMAs), geologists, biologists and oceanographers can be brought together to provide solutions through enabling frameworks known as Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs).... (read more)
2007-07-13 12:00:00
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